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AGA American Gas Association.
AISI American Iron and Steel Institute.
API American Petroleum Institute.
ANSI American National Standards Institute. Formerly the ASA - American Standards Assoc.
ASME American Society for Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM American Society of Testing Materials.
AWWA American Water Works Association.
Bales Term associated with banded lifts of pipe.
Barlow's Formula An equation which shows the relationship of internal pressure to allowable stress, nominal thickness and diameter.
Bevel The angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the pipe and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. The standard bevel for line pipe is 30o to facilitate welding.
Billet A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging, rolling or extrusion. For seamless tubular products, the billet is heated and pierced to form a tube hollow.
Black Bare Term associated with pipe surface whereby the pipe will not be coated with mill spray oil and grease spots and cutting oil will not be removed.
Black Dry Term associated with pipe surface whereby the pipe will not only be coated with mill spray oil and all grease spots and cutting oil will be removed by washing.
Black Oiled Term associated with pipe surface whereby material ordered in this manner is protected with a varnish-type oil on the O.D. for temporary corrosion protection during transit and in short-term storage.
Bundles Term associated with practice of packaging NPS 1-1/2" and smaller pipe. Pieces per bundle vary depending upon size.
Burst Test A destructive hydraulic test employed to determine actual yield strength and ultimate strength of both seamless and welded pipe.
Buttweld Pipe See Continuous Weld.
Chamfer A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner.
Chemical Properties Normally associated with a limited number of chemical elements; however, depending upon the specification, practically a full analysis may be required. Minimum or maximum limits are established in Standards.
Cold Work Deforming metal plastically at a temperature lower than the recrystallization temperature. Mechanical or hydraulic expansion employed to achieve higher mechanical properties.
Conduit Pipe serving as a duct for electrical wiring.
Coupling Threaded sleeve used to connect two lengths of pipe.
Continuous Weld In common usage, a phrase for continuous butt weld. Furnace-welded pipe produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp and subsequently cut into individual lengths, having its longitudinal butt joint forge welded by the mechanical pressure developed in rolling the hot-formed skelp through a series of round pass welding rolls.
Cut Lengths Pipe cut to a specific length as ordered.
Die Stamping Permanent marking placed on pipe as required by some specifications.
Double Extra Strong Standard pipe weight designation (XXS). Sometimes described as XXH (double extra heavy).
DRL Double Random Length (35' minimum average or as defined in specifications).
DSAW Double Submerged Arc Weld.
Ductility The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test or by other means.
Eddy-Current Testing Non-destructive testing method in which eddy-current flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.
ERW Electric Resistance Weld. See High Frequency Welding.
EW Electric Weld. See High Frequency Weld.
Elongation In tensile testing, the increase in the gage length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.
Expanded Pipe Pipe which has been enlarged circumferentially by mechanical or hydraulic pressure.
Extra Strong Standard pipe weight designation (XS). Sometimes described as XH (extra heavy).
Flattening Test A quality test for pipe in which a specimen is flattened between parallel plates that are closed to a specified height.
Galvanizing Covering of iron or steel surfaces with a protective layer of zinc (weight defined in specifications).
High Frequency Welding A technique employed in the manufacture of electric resistance weld pipe. Typical radio frequency power for welding is supplied at 450,000 cycles/sec.
Hot Stamp Permanent marking placed on pipe as employed by manufacturer or as established by specification.
Hydrostatic Test Normal mill test as required by specifications. The pipe ends are sealed and high pressure water is introduced to predetermined pressures as required by specifications.
I.D. Inside Diameter.
Impact Test A test performed at a specified temperature (usually lower than ambient) to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in a Charpy Test.
Ink Mark Continuous printing identification associated with NPS 1-1/2 and smaller pipe. Detail is normally limited to the trademark and "Made in USA".
Kip A unit of weight equal to 1,000 pounds used to express dead weight.
Lifts Term associated with separated segments of pipe (banded or unbanded for ease of handling).
Magnetic Particle One of several methods of non-destructive testing. A non-destructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Finely divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, are attracted to and outline the pattern of and magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities.
Magnetic Properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application; for example, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit.
NPS A dimensionless designator for such traditional terms as "nominal diameter", "size", and "nominal size". Corresponds to actual outside diameter only in sizes 14 inches and over.
Normalizing Heating a ferrous material to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range.
O.D. Outside Diameter.
Oiled See Black Oiled.
PE Plain End.
Pickling Pipe immersed into acid bath for removal of scale, oil, dirt, etc.
PSI Pounds per square inch.
PSIG Pounds per square inch gage.
R & D Reamed and Drifted. Pipe commonly used in water wells which has a special, heavy-duty coupling and a guaranteed I.D. clearance.
SC Square cut plain end pipe.
Skelp A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness, width and edge configuration, from which welded pipe is made.
SMLS Seamless.
SRL Single Random Length (16-22 ft. for standard weight ASTM pipe or as defined in specifications).
Stencil Paint spray identification placed on pipe. Specification size, wall, grade, test pressure, method of manufacture and normal mill characters and mill identification are usually included; however, detail varies by specificaton. "Country of Origin" is included.
Stretch Reduction A technique employed in the manufacture of continuous weld pipe and in certain instances in the manufacture of seamless and electric resistance weld pipe. It involves one or several "master" sizes which are stretch-reduced or rolled under tension through a number of stands to achieve a variety of standard pipe diameters and walls.
Strip A sheet of metal in which the length is many times the width.
TBE Threaded Both Ends.
T&C Threaded and Coupled.
Tensile Strength In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also, called ultimate strength. Usually expressed in pounds per square inch.
TO Threads Only.
Tube Round See Billet.
Ultrasonic An electronic method of non-destructive testing utilizing sound waves.
Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals including steels.